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These concerns resulted in standard specifications development addressing privacy and security issues. RFID cards, labels, fobs, and all other form factors. In 1945, Léon Theremin invented a listening device for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident radio waves with the added audio information. Similar technology, such as the IFF transponder, was routinely used by the allies and Germany in World War II to identify aircraft as friend or foe. Transponders are still used by most powered aircraft. Mario Cardullo’s device, patented on January 23, 1973, was the first true ancestor of modern RFID, as it was a passive radio transponder with memory.
RFID tags, both passive and semi-passive, was performed by Steven Depp, Alfred Koelle, and Robert Frayman at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1973. The portable system operated at 915 MHz and used 12-bit tags. The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton in 1983. A radio-frequency identification system uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified. Two-way radio transmitter-receivers called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its response.